Writing a good abstract is a formidable undertaking and many novice researchers wonder how it is possible to condense months of work into 300 to 400 words. Nevertheless, creating a well-written abstract is a skill that can be learned and mastering the skill will increase the probability that your research will be selected for presentation Often when asked to write a report or article, you will be required to include an abstract. This is usually a very concise summary of what the report or article is about and is usually placed before the body of your writing. The abstract can be read to get a quick overview. It tells the reader what to expect in your work and it should be based on all you have written.

Definitions: The word abstract comes from the Latin abstractum , which implies a condensed style of an extended piece of writing. There are 2 main kinds of abstract:
(1) Descriptive
(2) Informative abstract. the kind of abstract you write depends on your discipline space.

Why do we write abstracts?

Abstracts are necessary parts of reports and analysis papers and customarily academic assignments. The abstract is typically the last item that you simply simply write, but the first issue people browse once they want to possess a quick outline of the overall paper.
analysis abstracts are used throughout the research community to produce a succinct description some of research project. it’s typically a short define of your completed analysis. If done well, it makes the reader want to seek out out tons of regarding your analysis. Some students gift their analysis findings at native and national conferences. analysis abstracts are generally requested as a locality of the applying methodology for conference presenters. These are the basic parts of associate abstract in any discipline:

1) Motivation/problem statement: Why will we care regarding the problem? What sensible, scientific, theoretical or creative gap is your analysis filling?
2) Methods/procedure/approach: What did you truly do to urge your results? (e.g. analyzed three novels, completed a series of five paintings, interviewed seventeen students)
3) Results/findings/product: As a results of finishing the higher than procedure, what did you earn/invent/create?
4) Conclusion/implications: What are the larger implications of your findings, particularly for the problem/gap known in step 1? but, it’s vital to notice that the load accorded to the various elements will vary by discipline. For models, try and realize abstracts of analysis that’s like your research.

Qualities of a Good Abstract

Well developed paragraphs are unified, coherent, concise, and able to stand alone.

Uses associate degree introduction/body/conclusion structure that presents the article, paper, or report’s purpose, results, conclusions, and suggestions therein order

Follows strictly the chronology of the article, paper, or report

Provides logical connections (or transitions) between the information included

Adds no new information, but simply summarizes the report

Is understandable to a wide audience

Oftentimes uses passive verbs to downplay the author and emphasize the information


Steps to Writing Effective Abstracts

Reread the article, paper, or report with the goal of abstracting in mind. Look specifically for these main components of the article, paper, or report: purpose, methods, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendation. If you’re writing associate degree abstract concerning another person’s article, paper, or report, the introduction and therefore the outline are sensible places to start. These areas typically cowl what the article emphasizes. once you’ve finished rereading the article, paper, or report, write a rough draft while not trying back at what you’re abstracting. Don’t just copy key sentences from the article, paper, or report: you’ll place in an excessive amount of or deficient info. Don’t think about the means material was phrased within the article, paper, or report: summarize info during a new means.

Do not commence with “this paper…”, “this report…” or similar. It is better to write about the research than about the paper.

Do not explain the sections or parts of the paper.

Avoid sentences that end in “…is described”, “…is reported”, “…is analyzed” or similar.

Do not begin sentences with “it is suggested that…” “it is believed that…”, “it is felt that…”or similar. In every case, the four words can be omitted without damaging the essential message.

Do not repeat or rephrase the title.

Do not refer in the abstract to information that is not in the document.

If possible, avoid trade names, acronyms, abbreviations, or symbols. You would need to explain them, and that takes too much room.

The abstract should be about the research, not about the act of writing.

Where to Find Examples of Abstracts:

The best supply of example abstracts is journal articles. head to the library and appearance at
biology journals, or check out electronic journals on the net.
browse the abstract; read the article. choose the simplest ones, the examples wherever the abstract
makes the article easier to browse, and make out however they are doing it.
Not everybody writes smart abstracts, even in refereed journals, however the a lot of abstracts you browse, the better it’s to identify the nice ones.

SOURCES: www.uky.edu.academy/files/How%20to%20Write%20Research%20Abstract.pdf
www.acponline.org/education_recertification/education/program_directors/abstracts/ prepare/res_abs.htm ABSTRACT SAMPLES

ABSTRACT SAMPLE ONE:Auditing is frequently dynamic and developing to fulfill the wants of the business setting it serves. The role of auditing towards structure success have attracted discuss the front pages of national newspapers, instead of in exactly the monetary pages have even junction rectifier now and again to question and statement in parliament.
This coverage has not forever been excellent news for the auditing profession, however it will indicate a heightened awareness in society of the potential importance of what auditors do. It conjointly reflects the approach during which auditing apply and therefore the activities of audit corporations have developed and enlarged business particularly Anamco Ltd. Enugu.
whereas at only once auditing was usually thought to be a procedural activity involving the applying of mechanical techniques, there’s currently bigger realization that each the aim AN the execution of an audit are removed from easy matters. in sight of the higher than reality the study was designed to look at Auditing as an instrument for structure success in Anamco Ltd. Enugu. within the course of the analysis oral interview and form were adopted because the main instruments for grouping knowledge for the study. the information collected were tabulated, analyzed and taken. From the analysis some revelations were created. Base on the revelations some recommendations were created to eliminate or ameliorate Audit department of the corporation.

ABSTRACT SAMPLE TWO: This analysis investigation is concentrated on the utilization of Cost-Volume-Profit analysis as a Management tool for higher cognitive process exploitation Nigerian Breweries Plc as a case study.
Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) analysis narrowly known as break-even analysis, is that the application of marginal cost accounting and seeks to review the link between prices, volume and profits at differing activity levels and may be a helpful guide for short coming up with and higher cognitive process.
There are series of relationship between prices, volume of production and profit. associate degree understanding of those relationship are helpful to management. Cost-volume-profit relationship as a choice creating device that considers the inherent relationship between value, volume of production and also the profit that’s created.
This analysis study is split into 5 chapters. Chapter one is introduction which has background of the study, statement of the matter, objectives of the study, significance of the study, analysis queries, hypothesis, scope and limitation of the study and definition of terms.
Chapter 2 deals with review of connected literatures on cost-volume-profit analysis as a management tool for higher cognitive process.
Chapter 3 deals with analysis style and methodology.
Chapter four involves presentation, analysis and interpretation of information.
Finally chapter 5 is outline of findings, conclusion and proposals.

ABSTRACT SAMPLE THREE: The study was focused on the study of loan syndication in the Nigeria financial market and its impact on the economy. The study examines the extent to which loan syndication has contributed to the performance of the Nigeria enterprise. Data was collected through the administration of the questionnaire numbering eighty (80) of which sixty-seven (67) were answered and returned. The response form the return questionnaire form the data for the research work.. This data were analyze on the bases of simple percentages while the Chi – square were employed in the test of the hypothesis
The study reveals that loan syndication has improved the performance of the Nigeria enterprise. It has not been significantly being applied in the basis of the finding made. It was recommended that participating bank in loan syndication business should endeavor to set up distinct department or section with good management structure capable of dealing with the cooperate borrowers seeking for syndication loans and that banks should be involved in a lot of innovation programme that will increase their deposit base in order to comprehensively eliminate the fear of a possible liquidating that may arise from making syndication loan which one major reason for which should shy away from providing adequate syndication facilities to industrialist.


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